Diabetes has become a common lifestyle disease. This article will give you all the info you need on types of diabetes.
What is diabetes?
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease marked by high levels of sugar in the blood, as the body has trouble in processing sugar.
Types of diabetes:
There are essentially two types of diabetes, Type 1 and Type 2, based on whether or not the body is capable of producing insulin (an essential chemical produced by the body to process glucose) by itself.
Type 1 diabetes:
This is also called insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Here, the body produces no insulin of its own. The cells responsible for producing insulin are destroyed by the body’s immune system in this condition, therefore, the patient will need to obtain his insulin requirements from outside. A person with this kind of diabetes will need to inject insulin at regular intervals to maintain a normal insulin level in the body. Approximately 10-15% of all diabetics have type 1 diabetes. Since it occurs earlier in life, usually before the age of 40, it is also called juvenile diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes:
This is non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Here, the pancreas (the organ responsible for insulin production) produces insulin, but the quantity produced is not sufficient to maintain normal blood sugar levels. In this case, oral medication can stimulate the pancreas to increase production of insulin. So a patient with type 2 diabetes does not usually need external injections of insulin. Up to 85-90 % of all diabetic have type 2 diabetes. A person’s genetics can make one prone to type 2 diabetes. Additionally, lifestyle factors also increases the risk of developing this kind of diabetes. Excess weight – particularly around the body’s mid-section, sedentary lifestyle, high blood pressure and high-carbohydrate and high-fat diets – are major risk factors that can trigger type 2 diabetes.
In addition to type 1 and type 2 diabetes, there is another form of temporary diabetes called gestational diabetes.
This form of diabetes mellitus occurs in some women, during pregnancy. Here, the sugar levels rise beyond normal levels during pregnancy and return back to normalcy once the pregnancy is over. This largely happens due to hormonal changes during pregnancy. It is known to occur in 2-5% of pregnant women. However, mothers who develop gestational diabetes are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.
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